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One athlete who additionally took the SAT test also scored below a on the verbal section. An additional 8 who only took the SAT scored below on the verbal test. By the university's own calculations, the average ACT Reading score was The average ACT English score was One student who additionally took the SAT test also scored below a on the verbal section.

An additional 3 who only took the SAT scored below on the verbal test. None of those also took the SAT.

NIU has two reading specialists who work with student athletes. The university says that only one student athlete was "specially admitted" to NIU to play football or basketball between and University response from a conversation with spokesman Brad Hoey. NIU maintains that they have a threshold that must be met by everyone who wants to go to NIU, and that threshold does not change because a student is also an athlete.

Hoey responded to the percentages CNN found by saying that when "dealing with a much smaller demographic, percentages will be different. If that's true, we'll give them an opportunity. We won't take a chance on an athlete who can't make it in classroom. Ohio State originally denied our request for SAT or ACT scores, saying they did not have a record compiled that showed the scores of athletes playing football or basketball.

We then amended our request to ask for aptitude test scores, and Ohio State responded with the scores of the Wide Range Achievement Test WRAT , used by several universities to evaluate student-athletes after they are admitted. The WRAT test evaluates each athlete at a certain reading level. A review of those documents found that several of the scores were in the elementary range for reading skills, however, CNN could not tell how many scores were related to how many students.

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The university did tell us that between and , a total of 93 football players took the test. Those are the scores included in the document linked below. Over the past few years we have made our process more inclusive so that all incoming football players are evaluated. The WRAT is given to this group even if they have been previously diagnosed with a learning disability which oftentimes gives us the lower numbers in the statistics.

We also use this test for any additional student athlete that thinks they may need to be tested for learning disabilities. Once the evaluation has taken place we use the WRAT results to create an academic plan that is used throughout the entire semester.

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This plan includes elements such as individualized and group tutoring sessions for the classes enrolled and weekly mentor meetings to help with time management, study skills, and the transition from high school to college. When we are creating these plans, we use the information from the WRAT to determine where the needs ex. For example, if a student athlete has a low math WRAT score, the number of math tutoring sessions would be greatly increased. We have found that with this WRAT information helps us put our student athletes in the best possible situations for academic success.

From Professor Gerald Gurney's research: -- He looked at specially admitted athletes between and Scores for students were given. Many athletes took more than one test and if they did, they were only counted if they scored below the threshold on both. Of those , 48 scored below the threshold. The average athlete scored a combined 20 on the ACT reading and English tests. According to their admissions dept. The average athlete score submitted to us on the SAT critical reading score was Between and , there were 81 student athletes playing football or men's basketball who were "alternatively admitted" to OSU, meaning they would not otherwise have been admitted on grades alone.

University response from spokesman Gary Shutt: "The NCAA change in admittance requirements has allowed lower test scores for some athletes. Certainly we would like to see higher scores. But standardized tests are not the only gauge of a student athlete's potential.

Work ethic and background play a huge roll. We provide the support to help many of these students become successful.

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While you point out that student-athlete scores are lower that the student body, the graduate rates for our athletes are in the same range as the total student body. That again points to the work ethic of student athletes. OSU says they are investigating and offered this response. Men's basketball -- 11 scored below a on the SAT verbal test, with 18 scoring higher. ACT scores were not provided for this group. Women's basketball -- 11 scored below a on the SAT verbal test, with 45 scoring higher.

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The university said that between and ,there were no more than 90 athletes specially admitted to the University of Oregon, meaning they would not have otherwise been admitted on academics alone. University spokesman Joe Mosley, in a statement, wrote that he believed the "negative stereotype" that some student athletes aren't academically ready for college is not supported by the data above. He cited averages of student athletes in all sports at UO, writing: "The average high school GPA of the new student-athletes who enrolled for the first time at the UO last summer or fall term, for instance, was 3.

That GPA compares to the record 3. Roger Thompson, UO's vice president for enrollment management, said in a statement from the university: "Student-athletes at the University of Oregon, for the most part, are performing in the classroom at or near the level of their peers in the general student population. I can't say that's a surprise, because students recruited for their athletic talents go through the same holistic admissions process at the UO as those who are recruited for their academic abilities.

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Fewer than a quarter of all "special admits" at the UO - situations in which students are admitted despite being below standards in GPA, SAT scores or core classes - are student-athletes," Mosley wrote. Mosley also cited a freshman-to-sophomore year retention rate of 87 percent for all student athletes, and said the that rate is on par with the rest of the student population. We're more interested in what they're going to accomplish than what they already have accomplished. Oregon State provided composite test scores, meaning they included reading, math and in some cases writing, for football players admitted between and According to several academic experts, the threshold for being college literate is a composite score of on the SAT if the student took the math and verbal tests, and a if the student took the math, verball and writing tests.

Of the sets of scores provided to CNN: -- 82 scored lower than all thresholds of the tests that student took.

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OSU had 76 special admits on the football team between and University response from a conversation with spokesman Steve Clark. We're investing in their future. So I think it's difficult in general for anyone to assume that an SAT is a direct measurement of someone's literacy. We're not satisfied, but it's not a free pass to OSU. Special admits are reviewed by those who hold the university to the highest of rigor. Your statistics seem to support that.

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I don't think that's necessarily a full reference of the success of athletes when they graduate. Our choice is to invest in them. Rutgers denied our request, saying the state open records law makes an exemption for all academic records. In total, that's University response from a conversation with Brian Davis, associate athletic director for football student services. Let's make sure we're bringing people in who have a good chance at being successful.

The debate becomes where do we draw the line as to who can become successful and then next line is, what do we consider success?

At Texas, athletes are initially given a reading test to asses where they stand. Those who are reading below average are put in extra programs and are assigned a reading specialist. Among the proudest moments in his job, Davis said, is when "on paper, a student who shouldn't be at an academic institution works hard and they get it. And they finish.

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I understand the other side. I know faculty that question the success. What I don't like is that we marginalize the success of all student athletes based on those experiences. If you're signing 20 players , you can't have percent extremely at risk. It puts way too much pressure on the system. That's when you get into more nefarious issues and I'm very proud of how we've addressed the risk factors. I actually asked kids, and several said, yeah, just make sure you got B's in everything and don't worry about the test, which is a horrible thing to say.

The NCAA calculates it on a sliding scale, based on high school grade point average. Davis also said that in a handful of cases, a student-athlete's highest score is not sent to the university, only the first test score that makes them eligible. He told CNN that frustrations with the academic levels of some athletes have boiled over at times while he's been at Texas. Palaima cited one specific instance he was aware of, in which a 5th-year senior athlete appeared to be getting too much help from a tutor.

Palaima said he sees this as just one example of what he's seen over the years. According to several academic experts, the threshold for being college literate is a score of on the SAT composite. The university provided sets of scores to CNN. We found that 29 scored below the threshold.

The first title in the new, exciting, and completely original Sports by the Numbers series! The University of Oklahoma Sooners Football program has produced seven national championship teams, four Heisman Trophy winners, and countless legendary coaches, players, and characters. This inaugural book in the new Sports by the Numbers franchise unlocks the captivating history of this football program by providing OU fans with Sooners history in a fresh, provocative, and unique numerical framework.

The format created by the authors distinguishes Sports by the Numbers from everything else available today. University of Oklahoma Football is composed of ten chapters, each offering one hundred numbered factual "mini-stories"—facts, anomalies, records, coincidences, and enthralling lore and trivia. Each chapter begins with an introduction that highlights the many exciting stories detailed in that chapter. Kalsu was drafted by the Buffalo Bills in and played in the NFL for one year before being called to duty.