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What is the same probability using IPv6? What is the probability of creating this IP routing conflict under the same assumption of random assignment of addresses within Class C? The codec transport layer creates 50 VoIP packets per second. What is the final ratio of the original VoIP packet information content the 20 bytes of payload to the physical layer bits? Assume also that a network management utility sends packets of average size of bytes and at the rate of 6 packets per second.

Can you find the same ratio of the original VoIP packet information content to physical layer bits? What do you think is the main challenge of data transmission over tactical wireless networks? Assume the net amplitude modulation is symmetric at each AM constellation point. Define the decision regions on this constellation c. What is the energy level of each signal? What is the average signal energy associated with this set? Continuing with 1-e, find the conditional error probability of the outer two points of this constellation as a Q-Function g. Drive the average symbol error probability considering both inner and outer points.

Is there an improvement in spectral efficiency since we send log 2 M bits per symbol? Considering the use of Gray code with this constellation, and assuming that the nearest-neighbors error are predominant, drive an approximation of the probability of bit error with this constellation.

Networking Models in Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs): Concepts and Challenges | SpringerLink

In QAM, inner constellation points have 4 nearest neighbors, the edge points have three nearest neighbors and the corner points have two nearest neighbors. For the three constellations in Figure 2. Derive an upper bound of the probability of symbol error for QAM in general c. What are the various energies for the different points of the constellation? How many instantiations are there for each energy level? Assuming the different energy levels are transmitted with equal probabilities, what is the average energy expressed as a function of the signal spacing?

Express the upper bound of the probability of symbol error for QAM which you derived in 2-b above in terms of bit energy v. What is the relative efficiency in terms of dB of this QAM compared to antipodal signaling? The phase change is multiple of 2. What are the Fourier Transforms of these four signals? Let us assume that an enemy jammer was able to accurately estimate the slot length in both cases fast hopping and slow hopping. If the slow hopping slot length is 6 times the length of the fast hopping slot length, the number of frequency carriers are 8 and the frame time period allocated for slotting repeatedly is 6Ts.

Where Ts is the time to transmit a symbol. If the enemy jammer could not follow the hopping pattern and relied on randomly jamming one frequency per frame time. What is the probability of that jammer hitting a slot utilized for transmission just causing an error in the transmission during a frame time?

Networking Models in Flying Ad-Hoc Networks (FANETs): Concepts and Challenges

Calculate this probably in both cases. Continuing with b above, what do you see the benefit of fast hopping with these kinds of jammers? A sophisticated jammer can sense the transmission frequency and switch to it with some lag of time. Let us assume that we have a sophisticated jammer that 1 only need 3 TS lag time to zoom on the transmission frequency. What is the probability of that jammer hitting a utilized slot? What is the error pattern in both cases? Sketch the error pattern and estimate the average jamming rate.

If you are to design a frequency hopping tactical radio, what will be you limit on how fast you will hop? For this problem, if you are to design a tactical radio, what are the top factors you would consider to overcome jammers?


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  • If you are to design a frequency hopping jammer, what will be the top factors to consider for jamming the signal?? Chapter 3 1Over the telegraphy channel, source symbols are expressed using the channel symbols which can be a dot, a dash, a letter space or a word space. Column two shows the international Morse code Dot-Dash combination used to express every character symbol , while column three shows the time duration in terms of time unit used to carry each symbol. Symbol Duration in time units 9 13 15 11 5 13 13 11 7 17 13 13 11 9 15 15 17 11 9 7 11 13 13 15 17 15 6 Symbol Probability 0.

    Plot a correlation between symbol duration and symbol probability. What kind of correlation you see between symbol probability and symbol duration in time units? A submarine Coax cable channel can send a positive pulse, a negative pulse or a zero level during each channel symbol time.

    smart-hydro.com/sufe-phone-tracker-app.php The cable type requires that at least one zero must follow each positive or negative pulse. What is the largest set of codewords of length 4 channel symbols? Draw a state transition diagram of this channel showing the transition between the three channel symbols as states. Express the set of 4 channel symbols over the transition diagram in 2. This is a prefix code that translates a bit stream 0 and 1 occur with the same probability into codewords with specific characteristics.


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    • Source Codeword 11 10 Encoded Codeword a. By inspecting the codewords, what is the least number of 0s that must follow every 1? What is the maximum number of 0s that can occur in an encoded sequence? What is the probability of each source code word? What is the coding rate for this code?

      Calculate the Entropy per octal symbol for this source b. Design a variable length source code that has an average block length equals to the entropy. Encode the source octal sequence using the code you designed. Let us assume we designate the codewrds 00, 01, 10, 11 to these four instructions. If we use a code that approaches the Entropy, what is the percentage of reduction of the average number of bits used to communicate these instructions?

      Show if it is or it is not. The probability of block error is the probability of that two or more bit errors occur per code word. When this code is used over a BSC with crossover probability of p, what is the probability of block error? When this hypothetical code is also used over the same BSC with the same crossover probability of p, will the probability of block error be more, less, or the same? Find the output sequence v 1 , and v 2 relying on shifting the bits in the figure.

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      Let us assume we designate the codewrds 00, 01, 10, 11 to these four instructions. If we use a code that approaches the Entropy, what is the percentage of reduction of the average number of bits used to communicate these instructions? Show if it is or it is not. The probability of block error is the probability of that two or more bit errors occur per code word. When this code is used over a BSC with crossover probability of p, what is the probability of block error? When this hypothetical code is also used over the same BSC with the same crossover probability of p, will the probability of block error be more, less, or the same?

      Find the output sequence v 1 , and v 2 relying on shifting the bits in the figure. Find the same output sequence using discrete convolution of modulo-2 using g 1 and g 2 of this convolutional encoder. Find the output code word from interlacing v 1 , and v 2 Chapter 4 1- Patients arrive to the emergency room independently at random.